There is an increasing demand in the aerospace industry for large sapphire windows. Airplanes and UAVs, (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), have advanced reconnaissance systems and other large view ports that sapphire is perfectly suited for. Sapphire is also increasingly viewed as a window material upgrade from Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) and Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) for these airborne applications. It is well known that sapphire is commercially available unlike other optical materials such as Alon and Spinel which toil in R&D mode.

Sapphire is being adopted for aerospace applications because of the flexibility that sapphire material affords optical engineers in terms of sizes, optical properties, mechanical properties and the wide transmission range from the VUV to the near IR. These unique parameters, along with the availability of 15 diameter sizes, give the material a real advantage over other optical materials. HEM sapphire is optimized for use in aerospace applications; low scattering bulk material with near perfect crystalline structure yields high performance windows. Crystal Systems has focused on being the best optical sapphire supplier in the world; our valued customers continue to validate our work.

The market for Light Emitting Diodes, LEDs is in its infancy. Still, for over fifteen years Crystal Systems has been a trusted supplier! Sapphire is the number one substrate material being used for the deposition of Gallium Nitride, GaN. The quality, price, and availability of sapphire give it the lead position in the High Brightness LED, HBLED market. The sapphire material used for deposition of GaN must be low defect density with high purity. It is important to control the crystalline orientation accuracy to avoid GaN defects and maximize brightness. Moreover, like the silicon semiconductor industry, sapphire sizes are scalable. Crystal Systems supports the commodity size 2 substrates and also supplies 8 diameter wafers for cutting edge LED research. Please consider Crystal Systems for its quality, technical knowledge and experience in this field. To be successful supplying sapphire for the LED industry; you need high quality, delivery and price, Crystal Systems has all three.

There is an increasing number of mechanical sapphire applications including semiconductor wafer carriers, wear parts, nozzles, bearings, blades, tubes and jewel bearings. HEM sapphire possesses excellent hardness, strength, thermal shock resistance with operating temperatures over 1800 degrees Celsius. These attributes allow HEM sapphire to safely operate where other structural materials will fail. The current and emerging engineering applications for mechanical sapphire rely on consistent mechanical strength, purity and orientation

Sapphire components can be installed in high temperature equipment without worrying about life times or the possibility of contaminating the chamber environment. Other mechanical applications such as liquid chromatography require well-annealed and low stressed material. HEM sapphire is low stressed because of the anneal cycle used during the crystal growth cycle. Fabrication processes after growth are low damage in order to ensure no subsurface damage or micro fracturing exists in the components. HEM sapphire is grown without stress and fabricated using low damage processes to yield high performance components that will operate in environments that most materials will not survive.

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